The challenges faced by our country in securing the food as well as nutritional security to fast-growing population need an integrated approach in livestock farming. Among the various livestock species, piggery is most potential source for meat production and pigs are more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Apart from providing meat, it is also a source of bristles and manure. Pig farming will provide employment opportunities to seasonally employed rural farmers and supplementary income to improve their living standards.
The advantages of the pig farming are.
- Pig has got highest feed conversion efficiency i.e. they produce more live weight gain from a given weight of feed than any other class of meat producing animals except broilers.
- Pig can utilize wide variety of feed stuffs viz. grains, forages, damaged feeds and garbage and convert them into valuable nutritious meat. However, feeding of damaged grains, garbage and other unbalanced rations may result in lower feed efficiency.
- They are prolific with shorter generation interval. A sow can be bred as early as 8-9 months of age and can farrow twice in a year. They produce 6-12 piglets in each farrowing’s.
- Pig farming requires small investment on buildings and equipment.
- Pigs are known for their meat yield, which in terms of dressing percentage ranges from 65 -80 in comparison to other livestock species whose dressing yields may not exceed 65%.\
- Pork is most nutritious with high fat and low water content and has got better energy value than that of other meats. It is rich in vitamins like thiamin, Niacin and riboflavin.
- Pigs manure is widely used as fertilizer for agriculture farms and fishponds.
- Pigs store fat rapidly for which there is an increasing demand from poultry feed, soap, paints and other chemical industries.
- Pig farming provides quick returns since the marketable weight of fatteners can be achieved with in a period of 6-8 months.
- There is good demand from domestic as well as export market for pig products such as pork, bacon, ham, sausages, lard etc.
Scope for pig farming and its contribution to national
According to MoFPI, there are 3600 slaughterhouses in India, although most of these facilities do not export. There are a small number of abattoirs in India which meet international standards. However, these facilities do not process pork. The pig farming constitutes the livelihood of rural poor belonging to the lowest socio-economic strata and they have no means to undertake scientific pig farming with improved foundation stock, proper housing, feeding and management. Therefore, suitable schemes to popularize the scientific pig breeding cum rearing of meat producing animals with adequate financial provisions are necessary modernize the Indian pig industry and to improve the productivity of small sized rural pig farms. In view of the importance of pig farming in terms of its contribution to rural poor and possible potentials for pig rearing in our country, Government of India has initiated measures to promote the pig farming on scientific lines under its five year plans. In order to make available good foundation stock 115 pig breeding farms were established throughout the country.
Project formulation for Bank Loan
The report normally should include information on land, livestock markets, availability of water, feeds, veterinary aid, breeding facilities, marketing aspects, training facilities, experience of the farmer and the type of assistance available from State Government Regional Pig breeding centrist report should also include information on the number of and type of animals to be purchased, their breed, production performance, cost and other relevant input and output costs with their description. Based on this, the total cost of the project, margin money to be provided by the beneficiary, requirement of bank loan, estimated annual expenditure, income, profit and loss statement, repayment period, etc., can be worked out and included in the project cost.
The project should include the following information on technical, financial and managerial aspects in detail based on the type of unit and capacity
- Nearness of the selected area to financing bank’s branch.
- Availability of good quality animals in nearby livestock markets/ breeding farms.
- Source and availability of training facilities.
- Availability of concentrate feeds and kitchen/ hotel/ vegetable market waste and broken grains from godowns
- Availability of medicines, vaccines and veterinary services etc.
- Availability of veterinary aid and marketing facilities near the scheme area.
- Reasonability of various production and reproduction parameters
- Unit cost – The average cost of piggery breeding stock.
- Input cost for feeds, veterinary aid, insurance, labor charges, etc.
- Output costs i.e. sale price of fatteners, piglets and culled animals.
- Income-expenditure statement and annual gross surplus.
- Cash flow analysis.
TECHNO ECONOMIC PARAMETER’S
Projection chart for piggery unit of 20 +2
Income and expenditure statement for a piggery unit of 20+2 units based on flock chart