Drumstick Cultivation

Drumstick cultivation is easy, less time consuming and paying as well. Therefore, interested farmers may go in for such endeavour.

Utility of Drumstick (DS)

Every parts of drumstick is useful. Tender leaves and sticks have high amount of Protein, Carbohydrates, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Minerals. Each part is used as medicine. The data presented in Table 2 provides very useful information regarding drumstick. In addition to sticks and leaves flowers of DS (drumstick) are valued ingredients of food which are not only tasty but nutritive too, Its juice is useful as a protection from bacterial diseases.

 Soil and Climate

It can be grown in variety of soils, but loamy, sandy loam soils are better suited. Sodic soils and also dry conditions are quite ok.

Variety

Generally DS provides flower once in a year, but a variety called Najne gives flower throughout the year. Fruit of Najne is thick and short. “Tatanagar” is a high yielding Najne variety. its fruits are long and it flowers profusely and gives high yields. Name and qualities of some important varieties are mentioned below:

Name of the varieties                                                  Characteristics

  1. Jafna, Jalpanam Provide fruits once in a year, fruits are about one meter long
  2. Kodical Fruits are 15-20 cm long, tasty and juicy
  3. Mulanur Fruits are 3-45 cm long
  4. P.K.M 1 Hybrid These flower (PKM-2) within 4 months of planting and fruits are ready after 6 months of planting. It gives about 200 sticks per plant.

Raising Seedlings

Seedlings raising is easy. It can be propagated from seed and also from branches. About 15 cm x 7 cm polythene bag is most suited. May – June is the best time. During May – June, Soil and organic manure in 2:1 ratio has to be put in poly packets two seeds are to be put in each packets and kept under shade and watered regularly. Germination takes place after 8-10 days. After 30-35 days seedlings, are ready for planting in main land. About 800 gms seeds / ha is enough.

Vegetative Propagation

One to two metre long branch is cut from the mother plant and planted in soil with adequate moisture and the cut portion of the head is covered with a lump of soil.

Land Preparation and Planting

Deep ploughing is done for DS cultivation. Pits measuring 1ft x 1ft x 1ft at a distance of 2.5 m. is prepared during summer months. Pits are filled with 2 kg FYM and soil. On the onset of monsoon, the seedlings are planted in the pits.

Table 2 – Nutritive value of DS leaves, stick comparad to some vegetables

                                             Names of Vegetables

Table 2 – Nutritive value of DS leaves, stick comparad to some vegetables

Names of Vegetables

 

 

Sl.No.    Parameter         Drum           Drum         Spinach         Carrot      Tomato     Frenchbean        Letttua 

                                           Stick       Stick leaves

 

1           Water (%)            75.9                 6.9              86.4         86.0           93.1           91.4           93.0

2         Protein (%)              6.9                 2.9             3.4            0.9                 1.9            1.7            2.1

3           Fat (%)                    1.7               0.1            0.8              0.2                0.1             0.1            0.0

4      Carbohydrates (%)     12.5             3.7           6.5            10.6                3.6            4.5            2.5

5         Fibre (%)                   0.9              4.8            0.7              1.2                  0.7           1.8             0.5

6       Mineral (%)              2.3                 2.0           2.2              1.1                  0.6            0.5            1.2

7     Calcium (mg/100g)      440            30            380              80                  20            50             50.0

8    Phosphours (mg/100g)    70           110            30            30                 36             28              28

9     Iron (mg/100g)                7            3.3            16.2               –                 1.8           1.7            2.4

10    Vitamin A (lU)          11,300          184           5,862         3,157           320           221            1,650

11     Vitamin B (mg/100g)    0.210          –              4.12          0.4             0.07         0.04            0.09

12     Vitamin C (mg/100g)     22.0        12.0           70.0           3.0            31.0        14.0            10.0

13     Energy (cal)                  92.0          26.0           46.0           47.0           20.0       2 6.0             22.0

 

FERTILISER MARKETING NEWS z March 2010 About 1500 plants are needed for a ha of land. Seedlings prepared by vegetative propagation also can be planted in the pits after filling with the manures. The banks of ponds and waste lands can be conveniently used for DS planting.

Intercultural Operation

Timely and proper weeding at the initial stage of growth is needed. Seedlings raised from seeds need to be pruned, when plants reach a height of about 3 ft. This helps in the branching of the plants and many fruits could be had from lower height.

Fertilizer Application

After 3 months of planting, 50 g N, 20 g P2 O5 and 25 g of K2 O are added per pits. In addition, about 5 kg FYM / vermi compost is to be added per plant.

Irrigation

During dry season irrigation helps for better growth of DS plants.

Plant Protection Measures

DS is highly susceptable to various insects. Cater pillar, hairy cater pillar etc. are some of the common insects. Hairy cater pillars feed on leaves and buds and during day time stay at the base of the plants. This could be conveniently controlled by soap solution application during day time when they gather together at the base of the plants.

Harvesting

After 6 months of planting, harvesting are can be done. On average 200 fruits could be obtained. After harvesting, prunning of plants is done to get more branches and fruits in the next season. From the vegetative propagation tall plants are obtained. Therefore, after harvesting, branches have to be axed. Initially about 90 fruits per plants are obtained but with the passage of times about 800 – 1000 DS are obtained / plant.

Success Story of a Maharashtra Farmer

Santosh Sambhaji Kalane, of Village Balwant Station, Taluka : Sri Gonda, district Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, (Mobile No.09960611855) has created a record in the production of Drumstick. (6)

Techniques Adopted

The techniques adopted by him is mentioned herein :

  1. Land preparation in the month of May 2008
  2. Variety used was CO- I
  3. Treatment of seed with Tricoderna VDT
  4. Sowing of seeds in June 2008
  5. Spacing used was 10 ft x 10 ft and two seeds were planted in each pit
  6. After 15 days of seeding, 125 kg urea / ha was applied through ring method
  7. 1 kg organic manure per pit was used after 15 days of seeding.
  8. The same manure was used in 45 days interval several time.
  9. After two months of seeding, 125 kg DAP, 125 kg NPK 10 : 26 : 26 were mixed and applied in ring
  10. 10.In January 2009, cow urine was applied through drip
  11. 11.A mixture of 250 kg urea + 125 kg NPK 10 : 26 : 26 + 125 kg DAP + 30 kg Plants high plant growth regulator was applied / ha
  12. Needed interculture was done, but no irrigation was applied during rainy season. From December (2008) onward irrigation was applied at an interval of 4 days through drip, but during dry season, he also irrigated through furrow
  13. Prunning of branches were resorted to, after 15 days of seeding
  14. 14. As a result, lateral branching increased
  15. After a month of 1st prunning, medium height branches were prunned at a height of 6 ft.Third time, prunning was done at a height of 9 ft. As a result, branching was profused and afterwards plants become fruit bearing.
  16. After harvesting, a bundle of 10-12 kg is made and sent to Pune and Mumbai.
  17. All necessary measures of plant protection were undertaken.
  18. Regular field visits was carried out.
  19. Stem borers, if located, were immediately destroyed with a peg and a mixture of Kerosine and microtophos were applied in the holes and then was closed with mud
  20. After a month of seeding, Cypermethyne (5%) and Chloropyriphos mixture was prepared and used @ 2 ml / 1lit when fruiting started
  21. A mixture of dichlorophos 76% EC (2 ml / lit) and thiophunate methyl 70% WP (0.5g / lit) was sprayed.
  22. To control powdery mildew (disease), Microbutanyl 10 WP (0.5 g / lit) was sprayed
  23. A Pheromon trap was installed for 20 plants each.

 

Drumstick is a perennial plant. Therefore one harvesting does not stop the necessary operation. For higher yield, after the first harvesting proper management is essential. After the last harvest in May, the prunning of branches is resorted to and borduex mixture is used in the cut portion of the plant. Then 20 kg FYM + 800 g SSP per Plant was added. After 3 months of this, 250 kg NPK 10 : 26 : 26 + 250 kg DAP + 125 kg urea / ha were used. It is expected to get higher yield in the second year. In the first year, a yield of 25 t / ha was obtained. The economics of 1st year cultivation is mentioned in Table 3.

 

 

Economics of DS cultivation (Rs. / ha)

Month                                     Yield tonnes              Price (Rs / ha)                        Income (Rs)

February ‘09                                 2.5                              25                                      62,500.00

March ‘’09                                    7.5                                17                                   127,500.00

April ‘09                                         12.5                            10                                      125,000.00

May ‘09                                           2.5                               9                                      22,500.00

Total 25 –                                                                                                                     337,500.00

Cost——————————————————————————————– 65,000.00

 Profit ——————————————————————————————2,72,500.00

 

CONCLUSION ALOE VERA IS A FAMOUS MEDICINAL PLANT, but drumstick (DS) is a well known vegetable and medicinal plant as well.